Like the tower and the sanctuary, the dome has not historically known at the time of the Prophet Muhammad. Leading architecture, Prof K Cresswell in Early Muslim Architecture stated that the initial design of the mosque of Medina did not know the dome. In the reconstruction of the architecture, Cresswell shows how simple it is built mosque of the Prophet Muhammad.
Rasul mosque early architectural square with the wall as a barrier around it. Along the inside wall of the porch is made such a direct contact with an open field in the middle. As the development of technology architecture, the dome appears as the cover of the mosque building.
Dome did not come and rooted in Islamic architecture. That's because Islam does not take direct physical or cultural traditions of Islam does not teach grammar in a concrete form of architecture. Islam gives to his people the opportunity to determine the physical choices of minds.
Almost all cultures have known and dome. From time to time the dome shape is always changing. It is said that the first civilization to recognize and use the dome is the nation Mesopotamia from 6000 years ago. In the 14th century BC, the Mycenaean Greeks had found a vaulted tomb building (tholos Tombs).
However, there are also stating that the dome began to emerge during the Roman Empire, circa 100 AD One evidence is building pantheon (temple) in the city of Rome Hadria built at 118 King AD - 128 AD The use of recorded dome began growing rapidly in the early Christian period.
Dome structures and landscape at that time not too large, as there is in the building of Santa Costanza in Rome. In the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian also built a magnificent ancient dome. In the year 500 AD, he used the dome on the building in Constantinople Hagia Spohia.
So since when did Islam start using the dome of the mosque architecture? Historical and archaeological, the first dome in Islamic architecture found in the Dome of the Rock (Dome of Rock) or commonly known as the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem. Dome of the Rock was built around 685 AD to 691 AD
Interior Dome of the Rock is decorated with arabesk - geometric-shaped ornaments, ornamental plants propagation and calligraphy. Decorative element could be a characteristic of Islamic architecture since the 7th century AD Until now, calligraphy is still the ornaments that decorate the interior of the building of a mosque.
Since then, the Islamic architects continue to develop diverse style dome on the mosque he had built. In the 12th century AD, in Cairo, the dome became a symbol of national architecture of Egypt in the structure of Islamic societies. From time to time at the mosque dome shape also continue to change following the technological developments.
When Islam spread out and interact with other cultures and civilizations, the Islamic architects apparently did not hesitate to take the form of options that already exist, including techniques and how to build an already owned by the local community.
No wonder, if the dome shape was somewhat different mosques, according to the culture and the Muslim community living. Almost in every Muslim country has a domed mosque. Among the famous domed mosque, among others; Blue Mosque in Istanbul Turkey, the Taj Mahal in Agra, India, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, and other