Hazrat Adam was the first man and Prophet of Allah. The Holy Quran tells us that he was created from dust (Imran, 3:58), was granted inspiration (Hijr, 1:28) and he was created to rule on Earth (Baqara, 2:30).
A moment came where Allah (s.w.t) ordered the angels to bow down before Hazrat Adam and thus, accept his superiority. All of them obeyed Allah's command, except Shaitan whose pride made him refuse Allah's orders. Instead, he proudly said, "I refuse to bow down before this man who is made of clay, because I am made of fire and so I am better than him."
Allah did not like this proud attitude of Shaitan, and the disrespect that he showed towards His Prophet and so He expelled him from His court. So, Shaitan will continue to be cursed till the Day of Judgement when he and all his accursed followers will be thrown into Hell.
Allah also created a wife for Hazrat Adam called Hawa (or Eve) to live with. Allah sent both of them to Paradise where there were many luxuries including fresh, delicious fruit and other great sources of comfort. Allah allowed them to live there and to eat and drink whatever they wished. However, He forbade them to go near one tree, and told them that this was out of bounds for them.
Meanwhile, Shaitan was gutted over his expulsion. Instead of accepting his faults and seeking Allah's forgiveness, he became adamant with anger and pride. Believing that Hazrat Adam and Hazrat Hawa were the reason for his expulsion from Allah's court, he decided to take revenge. He was aware of Allah's command to the two about the particular tree, and so he hatched his plan. One day, he approached them with an innocent expression and said, "Do you know why Allah has given you everything in Paradise except for that certain tree? In fact, that is a very good tree and anyone who eats it's fruit will never die. He will become an angel." And then he said, "I am telling you this, only because I am your friend and well-wisher."
Deceived by the innocent words and expression of this man, Hazrat Adam and Hazarat Hawa oneday ate the fruit of this forbidden tree. As soon as they did so, their bodies were stripped of the heavenly attire and they were left naked, covering themselves with nothing but tree leaves. However, unlike Shaitan, they immediately realized that they had committed a grave mistake and that they had displeased their Lord. They started seeking Allah's forgiveness and this is an act loved by Allah so He forgave them. He also told them Shaitan was their open enemy and that they should not be deceived by Him.
After that Allah sent both Hazrat Adam and Hazrat Hawa to Earth. He asked them to live there for some time and to spend their time in virtue. Thus Hazrat Adam (A.S) was the first Messenger of Allah.